Write detailed political history of Qutb Shahis
Andhra and Telangana both the Telugu states were under the rule of Qutb Shahis. As the Sultans of Golconda, Qutbshahis ruled from 1518 CE to 1687 CE. Qutbshahis were great rulers. They belonged to Shia sect of Islam. Totally eight Qutb Shahi rulers ruled for 177 years.
- Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk (1512–1543)
- Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah (1543–1550)
- Subhan Quli Qutb Shah (1550)
- Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah (1550–1580)
- Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah (1580–1612)
- Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah (1612–1626)
- Abdullah Qutb Shah (1626–1672)
- Abul Hasan Tana Shah (1672–1689)
Along with the territorial expansion Qutb Shahi rulers provided good administration to their subjects, patronized arts and letters. Qutb Shahi rulers were great builders. Qutb Shahi rulers patronized poets of Telugu, Arab, Urdu, and Persian languages.
Qutb Shahis had matrimonial alliances with Mughals.
Sultan Quli Qutb ul Mulk (1518-1543): Sultan Quli Qutb ul Mulk was the founder of Golconda Empire. Before founding Goloconda Empire, Quli worked under Bahamanis. Bahamani sultan Mohammad Shah gave Kondangal Jagir, which was located between Gulbarga and Hyderabad, and 150 finest Arab horses. Mohammad Shah also honoured Quli with the title ‘Qavas Khan’.
In 1494, Bahadur Gilani, governor of Bahamani sultan Mohammad Shah, revolted against Mohammad Shah. Quli successfully suppressed the revolt and captured Jakhani fort. On this occasion, Mohammad Shah honored him with the title ‘Qutb ul Mulk’ and appointed him as the governor of Telangana area.
Quli Qutb ul Mulk constructed a fort in Kodangal, and on the southern side of Kodangal, he developed a village named Hasanabad.
In 1514, Quli Qutb ul Mulk issued an inscription.
Jamsheed Qutb Shah (1543 – 1550) : Jamsheed usurped the throne by killing his father Sultan Quli Qutb ul Mulk. Jamsheed also blinded his brother Haider. Jamsheed appointed Mir Mohammad Hamdani to muder Sultan Quli Qutb ul Mulk. His younger borther Ibrahim Quli was the governor of Devarakonda. As to the fear of getting murdered by his brother, Ibrahim Quli fled to Vijayanagar and took shelter over there for 7 years. Aliya Rama Raya provided him shelter. In 1550 Jamsheed died of tuberculosis.
Suban Quli (1550) : Suban Quli was the son of Jamsheed. Due to the untimely death of Jamsheed, his wife Bilkas Jaman enthroned minor Suban Quli and started acting as his regent.
Ibrahim Qutb Shah (1550 – 1580) : 1st Sultan of Golconda to take the title ‘Shah’. After the death of Jamsheed, Ibrahim Qutb came back from Vijayanagara and captured throne with the help of Mustafa Khan. Mustafa Khan’s title was ‘Khan e Khanan’.
Ibrahim Qutb Shah had the impact of Vijayanagara kings on him. Like the Vijayanagara kings, he also patronized poets. The speciality of Ibrahim Qutb shah was he patronized Telugu poets also.
Ibrahim Qutb Shah patronized Ponneganti Telaganaarya and Addanki Gagadhara kavi.
Yayaathi Charithra was authored by Ponneganti Telaganaarya.
Tapati Samvaranopaakhyaanam was authored by Addanki Gagadhara Kavi.
Ibrahim Qutb Shah had the title ‘Malikba Rama’.
Famous constructins during Ibrahim Qutb Shah Period.
- Purana pul
- Ibrahimpatnam Lake
- Hussain Sagar (Hussain Sagar by Hussain, his son in law).
Mohammad Quli Qutb Shah (1580-1612):
Mohammad Quli Qutb Shah was the son of Ibrahim Qutb Shah. Mirza Masood, Akbar’s ambassador, asked him to become a vassal of Akbar. Mohammad Quli Qutb Shah did not accept to become a feudatory king.
Mohammad Quli Qutb Shah gave his sister ‘Chand Sultana’ in marriage to Ibrahim Adil Shah II of Bijapur kingdom. Hyderabad city was developed during his reign. An Iran architect, Mir Momin Asarabadi was his wazir. Mir Momin Astarabadi was the architect of Charminar.
Sultan Mohammad Qutb Shah (1612-1626): Sultan Mohammad Qutb Shah was the son in law of Sultan Mohammad Quli Qutb Shah. Mohammad Qutb Shah married Mohammad Quli Qutb Shah’s daughter Hayat Bakshi Begum.
Hayat Bakshi Begum did yeomen service for the developement of education.
He made an agreement with Khurram, son of Jahangir in 1621 CE.
The construction of Mecca Masjid was started during Mohammad Qutb Shah’s regin.
French traveler Tavernier visited Hyderabad during Mohammad Quli Qutb Shah.
Abdullah Qutb Shah (1626-1672): Abudllah Qutb Shah ruled Golconda for longest period of 47 years. His mother Hayat Bakshi Begum acted as his regent. He developed Hayat Nagar and named it after his mother.
He concluded a treaty with Abdul Lateef, military general of Shah Jahan.
Famous Telugu poet Kshthrayya was his contemporary. Kshetrayya authored 1000 ‘Movva Padaalu’ (Movva Words) during his reign.
Abdullah Qutb Shah breathed his last in 1672.
Abul Hasan Tanisha (1672-1687): During his reign Akkanna was appointed as the Chief Advisor and Madanna as the Peshkar.
Another title of Abul Hasan was ‘Khan e Khanan’.
Kancherla Gopanna, nefew of Akkana and Madanna brother, was appointed as the head of Palvancha paragana. (Aurangazeb got Akkanna and Madanna murdered by his military general Shaik Minhaz on 24-March-1686). During the reign of Tanisha, Aurangazeb inavaded on Golconda and after continuous efforts of 8 months on 3 October 1687, by bribing Abdullah Pani, Aurangazeb got the gates of Golconda fort opened and captured. Future Asafjahi ruler Chinkilich Khan also helped Aurangazeb in this invasion. Tanisha was taken as prisoner to Daulatabad fort. Tanisha passed away in 1700 CE in Daultabad, Maharashtra.