Q: What is the role played by Communist Party in Hyderabad state politics?
Q: Write about Telangana peasants’ armed struggle?
Communists played a major role in bringing about political awareness both among the masses and elite in Telangana. Communists are the sole reason for the historic Telangana peasants’ armed struggle against the oppressive policies of zamindars. This struggle is one of the greatest revolts in the world.
We can divide the activities of communists in Hyderabad state into four phases.
|1st||First Phase 1940-1946 C.E.||During this phase communists gathered strength. For this they secretly met peasants and farmers and educated them about the exploitative policies of Zamindars and gave them confidence that they were there for them.
|2nd||July 1946 – 12 June 1947 C.E.||Communists fought against zamindars, and their activities were brought to the notice of Nizam.|
|3rd||12 June 1947 – 17 September 1948 C.E.||Communists fought against Nizam.
|4th||17 September 1948 – 12 October 1951 C.E.||Communists fought against Indian government.|
- First Phase 1940-1946 C.E. During this phase communists gathered strength. After Bhongir Andhra Maha Sabha meeting of 1944, Sanghas were organized in various villages of Telangana. During this phase three zamindars were attacked in Telangana.
- Mekuri Raghava Rao: Mekuri Raghava Rao was the zamindar of Dharmaram. When this zamindar tired to grab the lands of poor by illegal means, Lambadas foiled his efforts with the help of communists.
- Visunuri Rama Chandra Reddy, Zamindar of Janagaon. When Visunuri Ramachandra Reddy tried to grab the lands of poor, Davood Reddy foiled the efforts with the help of Arutla Ramachandra Reddy and distributed the land to poor.
- Katari Narsimha Rao: Zamindar of Mundrai. Arutla Ramachandra Reddy forced the zamindar to give back the lands to poor, which were grabbed by him illegally.
- July 1946 – 12 June 1947 C.E. During this phase, Visunuri Rama Chandra Reddy, Zamindar of Janagaon, sent his goons to Palakurthy village, to occupy the land of Ailamma, a woman of Rajaka community. Communists from other parts of Telangana came in support of Ailamma. Ailamma drove away the goons of Zamindar successfully.
On July 1946 C.E., Visunuri Ramachandra Reddy sent his goons to Kadivendi village, to attack on the members of Sangham. Doddi Komaraiah and Mugali Mallaiah were killed by the goons. Enraged villagers attacked on zamindar and destructed his mango garden. This incident is the beginning of Telangana Peasants’ Armed Struggle. In about 150 villages people revolted against the zamindars. Each armed sangham consists of 10- 20 members. They were given proper guerilla warfare training. Whenever they enter into a village people used to join hands with them for attacks on Zamindars.
As the revolt took violent turn, Nizam government took measures to suppress the revolt.
As the military entered into forests, communist leaders had to flee to Vijayavada. During those days, Vijayavada was called as Stalingrad by communists. In November 1946 C.E. Communist party was banned in Hyderabad state. Prajanatya Mandali , a cultural wing of Communist party carried forward the activities of communist party in Hyderabad state. ‘Maa Bhoomi’ a popular play by Praja Natya Mandali, proved very effective in bringing awareness among the common people against Zamindars.
- 12 June 1947 – 17 September 1948 C.E. Communists fought against Nizam.
On 12th June 1947 C.E., Nziam Mir Osman Ali Khan proclaimed himself a sovereign. This indicates that, he was not willing to join Indian Union after independence. Nizam started suppressing his enemies ruthlessly. At the same time Razakars also started attacks on common people, especially on Hindus.
After 12th June of 1947 C.E., Communists came back from Vijayawada and started making preparations for armed struggle.
On 11th September 1947 C.E., Communists openly proclaimed war against Nizam. Communists followed 3 strategies.
- Attacking on the police stations, zamindars and money lenders.
- Organising ‘Village Protection Force’ (Grama Rakshaka Dalam).
- Running parallel government. Comrade N. Bhuthareddy, V. Prabhakar Rao took villages under their control and ran parallel government.
During the armed struggle many communists became martyrs.
86 revolters were killed in Bairanpally.
In Gundrampally village, 15 revolters were thrown into a pit and burnt alive.
The attempt to burn alive 11 Revolters in Arutla village were foiled by a woman named Utthamma. On 29th November 1947 C.E., Nizam made standstill agreement with Indian Union. During this phase communists gathered more strength. After Operation Polo, on 17th September 1948, Hyderabad State was merged with Indian Union.
- 17 September 1948 – 12 October 1951 C.E. Communists fought against Indian government.
Though Hyderabad State was merged with Indian Union, central leadership of Communist Party of India decided to continue struggle against Indian Union
Vallabai Patel, during his visit to Hyderabad State, declared that, he would not let even on Communist to stay in Telangana. General Chowdary, the then Governor of Hyderabad State, was given full powers to suppress Communists. General Chowdary sent army into forests and got killed many communists. Due to this reason, communists consider 17th September as Black Day.
On the advice of Russia, Communists withdrew armed struggle on 21st October 1951 C.E.
Ravi Narayana Reddy, Telangana Communist party leader, was elected to parliament with highest majority in the country.
Pucchalapalli Sundaraih recorded the history of Telangana Peasants armed struggle with the name ‘Telangana Peoples’ Struggle and Its Lessons’.