Merger of Telangana and the Formation of Andhra Pradesh 1956
Andhra State and Andhra Pradesh
In 1802, Governor General Lord Wellesley merged Andhra in to Madras presidency.
1914 – In 2nd Andhra Mahaa Sabha meeting, Nyapathi Subba Rao made a resolution proposed that, Andhra should be separated from Madras. Some Raayala Seema leaders and leaders from Nellore opposed his proposal.
16 November 1937 – Sree Bhaagh Agreement
Sri Bhaagh was the house of a Telugu leader Kaashinaathuni Nageshwar Rao. It is located in Madras. Some leaders from Andhra and Raayalaseema met in Sree Bhaagh.
Desh Bhaktha Konda Venkatappaiah, Pattabhi Seetharaamayya, Deshi raju Peda Baapayya from Andhra, and Kdapa Koti Reddy, Rama Krishna Reddy, Seetha Raami Reddy, Subbi Rami Reddy, and Varadaachaari from Raayalaseema attended this meeting.
Important points of Sree Bhaagh Meeting
- Either capital or High Court of Andhra state should be set up in Raayala Seema.
- After the formation of State, for the first 10 years, in terms of irrigation, priority should be given to Raayalaseema.
- Andhra University supervising center should be established in Raayalaseema.
- A special university should be established in Tirupathi.
S.K. Thar Commission
Under the leadership of S.K. Dhar, a commission was appointed regarding the formation of language oriented states.
Members of Thar Commission:
- B.C. Banjal 2. Lal Jagath Narayan 3. Pannalal.
In December 1948, Thar commission submitted its report. Thar commission did not give positive report regarding language oriented state. Dissatisfied Andhra leaders requested for another committee. Congress Government appointed JVP Committee.
1949 JVP Commission:
Members of JVP Commission.
- Jawahar Lal Nehru 2. Vallabai Patel 3. Pattabhi Seetha Ramayya.
JVP committee suggested postponing the issue of Language Oriented State. As a special case, JVP Committee suggested that, Andhra State can be formed without including Madras in it.
15 August 1951 – 20 September 1951 Swami Seetharam Fast unto Death
Swami Seetha Ram’s original name was Gollapudi Seetharama Shastri. He wanted to fight for separate state in Gandhian style. To achieve Andhra State he started fast unto death on 15 August 1951. On the advice of Acharya Vinoba Bhave, Swami Seetha Ram on 20th September 1951.
Khosla committee advised to stop the construction of Krishna Pennar Project.
Puchalapalli Sundaraiah was the first person to talk about Vishaalaandhra. Sundaraih wanted to form Vishaalandhra by merging Hyderabad State and Andhra State.
Puchhalapalli Sundaraiah started Vishaalaandhra News Paper on 22 June 1952 in Vijayawada. He also authored a book named ‘Vishaalaandhra lo Prajaa Raajyam’. In this book he explained about the benefits of unification of Andhra and Hyderabad States.
Ayyadevara Kaleshwara Rao in a meeting held in Vijayawada, spoke about conducting Vishaalaandhra meetings. 1st Vishaalaandhra meeting was conducted in Warangal. Hayagreevaa Chaari was the president of 1st Vishaalaandhra meeting..
19 October 1952 Potti Sree Ramulu Fast unto Death
Demanding for Vishaalaandhra, Potti Sree Raamulu started fast unto death on 19 October 1952, in the residence of Balusu Saambha Moorthy, which is located in Madras. After fasting for 58day, Potti Sree Ramulu died on 15 December 1952. People started agitating in large number after his death. On 19th December 1952, Jawaharlala Nehru announced that with the non controversial place, a separate Telugu State would be formed.
Kailasanath Wanchu Committee – 1953
This committee was appointed to study the adverse results of forming a separate Telugu state.
On 10 August 1953, Andhra State bill was submitted in parliament.
1 October 1953– Andhra State was formed.
Andhra was separated from Madras State and evolved as Andhra State.
Kurnool was the capital of Andhra State.
After the formation of Andhra State, people from remaining part of India started demanding for more language oriented states.
Congress Government appointed States Reorganization Commission under the leadership of Fazl Ali, on 22 December 1953, to study this issue.
Members of Fazl Ali Commission:
June 1954 – 2nd Vishaalaandhra Mahaa Sabha meeting was held in Hyderabad. Sri Sri was the president of this session.
July 1954 – Fazl Ali commission visited Hyderabad.
K.V. Ranga Reddy and Marri Chenna Reddy demanded that Telangana State should be continued as a separate state.
30 September 1955 – Fazl Ali Commission submitted its report in favor of forming language oriented states.
Fazl Ali Commission suggested that voting for Vishaalaandhra in Assembly should be conducted in 1961Assembly Elections. Andhra leaders did not want to wait till 1961.
Total MLAs from Hyderabad State were 174.
147 MLAs expressed their views in the meeting.
103 MLAs expressed their view in favour of Vishaalaandhra.
29 MLAs opposed Vishaalaandhra.
16 MLAs remained neutral.
Voting in assembly regarding the formation of Telangana did not take place on the resolution because Telangana proponents insisted on including the phrase “As per the wishes of people” in the resolution.
February 1956 – Gentlemen’s Agreement
To convince the leadership of Telangana a meeting was held in Andhra Bhavan, Hyderabad.
|Andhra leaders –
Bejawada Gopala Reddy (CM)
Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
Sardar Gouth Lachhanna
Alluri Satya Narayana
|Telangana leaders –
Boorgula Ramakrishna Rao (CM)
K.V. Ranga Reddy
Marri Chenna Reddy
J.V. Narsinga Rao
An agreement was reached between the leaders of both sides.
Gentlemen’s Agreement was signed by all the above eight leaders. With this Andhra Pradesh was formed on 1st November 1956.
Minutes of Gentlemen’s Agreement
- Either Chief Minister of Deputy Chief Minister should be from Telangana.
- For the more convenient transaction of the business of Government with regard to some specified matters the Telangana area will be treated as one region.
- Urdu should be continued as official language for the next 5 years.
- None should be forced to learn Telugu.
- Liquor should be banned only on the consensus of people of Telanagana.
- Regional Standing Committee should be formed with 20 members to deal with specified matters of Telangana. It should consists of members of State Assembly belonging to that region including the Ministers from that region but not including the Chief Minister.
- Legislation relating to specified matters will be referred to the Regional committee. In respect of specified matters proposals may also be made by the Regional Committee to the State Government for legislation or with regard to the question of general policy not involving any financial commitments other than expenditure of a routine and incidental character.
- 8. The Regional Committee will deal with following matters:
- i) Development and economic planning within the framework of the general development plans formulated by the State Legislature.
- ii) Local Self Government, that is to say, the Constitutional powers of Municipal Corporations, Improvement Trusts, District Boards and district authorities for the purpose of Local Self Government or Village Administration.
iii) Public health and sanitation, local hospitals and dispensaries.
- iv) Primary and secondary education.
v)Regulation of admission to the educational institutions in the Telangana region.
vii) Sale of agricultural lands.
viii) Cottage and small scale Industries, and
- ix) Agriculture, Cooperative Societies, Markets and Fairs.
Unless revised by agreement earlier this arrangement will be reviewed after ten years.
- Domicile Rules: Telangana is regarded as a unit as far as recruitment to subordinate services is concerned; posts borne on the cadre of these services may be reserved for being filled up by persons who satisfy the domicile conditions as prescribed under the existing Hyderabad Mulki Rules. ( 15 years of Stay in Telangana area and in written document(affidavit) saying that he/she won’t leave Telangana)
- The position of Urdu. The Government of India would advise the state Government to take appropriate steps to ensure that the existing position of Urdu in administrative and judicial structure of the State is maintained for a period of five years.
- Retrenchment of surplus personnel in the new State. The Government of India do not anticipate any retrenchment. The intention is that so far as possible, the service personnel from the Hyderabad State should be automatically integrated into the services of the Andhra Pradesh without any process of screening. Should, however, any retrenchment be found necessary, the entire personnel of the services of the enlarged State will be treated on equal footing.
- Distribution of expenditure between Telangana and Andhra Regions. Allocation of expenditure with the resources of the state is a matter which falls within the purview of the State Government and the State Legislature.. Since, however, it has been agreed to the representatives of Andhra and Telangana that the expenditure of the new state on central and general administration should be borne proportionately by the two regions and the balance of income should be reserved for expenditure on the development of Telangana area, it is open to the state government to act in accordance with the terms of agreement in making budgetary allocations. The Government of India propose to invite the attention of the Chief Minister of Andhra to this particular understanding and to express the hope that it will be implemented.
- 13. The existing educational facilities including Technical Education in Telangana should be secured to the students of Telangana and further improved-
- 14. The cabinet will consist of members in proportion of 60:40 percent for Andhra and Telangana respectively, out of 40% of Telangana ministers, one will be a Muslim from Telangana. If the Chief Minister is from one region the other region should be given Dy Chief Ministership.