Komaram Bheem history and contributions
Ans: Komaram Bheem 22 Oct 1901 – 27 Oct 1940 (1928 to 1940)
Komaram Bheem was a Gond leader who fought against the forest laws of Nizam. He defied courts, laws, and any other form of Nizam authority, living off the sustenance of the forest.
Born in Sankenapalli, Komaram Bheem Asifabad dist. (Part of erstwhile united Adilabad Dist.)
Mother – Komaram Sombaru Father Komaram Chinnu.
Sister in law – Kukoo Bai.
Inspiration – Alluri Sita Rama Raju, Laachith Barpu Khan of Assam.
Slogan – Jal, Jameen, Jangal.
Gonds are considered as the descendants of Bheema and Hidimba of Mahaabhaarath times.
Gonds are very brave people living in dense forest of present day Asifabad district. Gonds lived away from the civilized people, they were very innocent. Traders used to come to Gond area and used to sell them biscuits, combs, salt etc. in barter system. In return they used to take forest products from them. Business people used to exploit them by taking 100 times more valuable forest products from the Gonds. Even before the revolt of Komaram Bheem, Gonds were aware for the exploitation of the businessmen, but they did not revolt against them. Bheem’s family is the head of that village.
Kukoo bai, elder sister in law of Komaram Bheem, used to tell Bheem about the heroic deeds of their ancestors. Kukoo bai, in her songs expressed the view that the water, land, and forest are the God’s gifts to the Gonds.
Pattedar was an officer who issues Pattas to the agricultural land. Siddique was the pattedar of this Gond area. Gonds were children of forest, who accustomed to live freely in the forests. Nizam’s officers used to demand for land tax. They used to invade on the Gond villages and confiscate their agricultural products, hens, goats and set their villages on fire at their will. They committed atrocities on Gonds in many ways.
Komaram Bheem’s father lost his life fighting against the Nizam forces. Komaram Bheem lost his mother when he was barely 15 years old. Young Bheem along with his brothers started cultivating land. As usual Nizam forces attacked on Gond villages and started oppressing the tribals. Young Bheem denied to submit to them. In a bid to retaliate their attack, Bheem killed a person from Nizam’s employees. When Nizam forces tried to arrest him, he escaped from his village and first reached reached Chanda, (present day Chandrapur in Maharashtra), and from there he went to Puna. In Pune, he met many freedom fighters who were fighting against the Britishers. There he learnt reading and writing. Komaram Bheem learnt many languages. From Pune, Bheem went to Assam, where he learnt using arms. During his days in Assam, he came to know about Lachitbhalpur, a brave leader, who fought against the Mughals. Lachitbhalpur’s story inspired Bheem. He know about the freedom fighters. Alluri Sita Rama Raju also an inspiration to Bheem.
Bheem came back to Gond area and united the tribals of Tokenmovada, Paataguda, Pittaguda, BabeJhari, Linepatar, Chaalbaadi, Kallegaon, Kolamguda, Kollari, Chinna Patnapur, Pedda Patnapur, and Jode Ghaat against the Nizam. Bheem enlisted a huge army and trained them in guerilla warfare techniques. In the hundreds of acres of these 12 villages, Bheem started Pudu farming. He denied to pay tax to Nizam and declared that Jal, Jameen and Jangal are their rights. Nizam forces could not subdue Bheem army. Finally Nizam sent the collector of Asifabad to have talks with Bheem.
Collector of Asifabad assured that the tribals would be given pattas for the lands they were cultivating. Bheem did not fall in their trap. He made it clear that Jal, Jameen and Jangal are given to them by God. None is authorized to issue pattas to them as they are already owners of that land and Nizam has nothing to do with the land. Bheem also demanded that Nizam must release his men who were arrested illegally. Collector left the village without getting any positive response from Bheem.
People of Nizam state were scared of Nizam and his Razakar army. Bheem bravely entered into the court of Nizam and once again reaffirmed that Nizam is not authorized to impose tax on Gond’s land. Nizam was perplexed with his brave act.
Nizam sent Razakar army to invade on Gond area. Razakars had sophisticated weapons. The inspiration given by Bheem was a great strength to Bheem’s army. Bheem army gave tough resistance to Nizam’s army fighting with traditional weapons.
As Razakars could not subdue Bheem’s army, Taluk dar (RDO) entered into the forest during night time, surrounded Bheem when he was in sound sleep, and opened fire. Bheem woke up and started fighting Nizam’s army. Bheem fought with Nizam’s army till his last breath and died on 27 Oct 1940.