History of Telangana Salrjung history and Reforms

History of Telangana Salrjung history and Reforms

Ans: Salarjung Reforms

On 31 May 1853, Asafjah IV Nasir ud daula appointed Mir Turab Ali Khan as the prime minister of Hyderabad state. He also honoured him with the title Salar Jung. Salarjung introducted many socio, economic, judicial and administrative reforms for the development of Hyderabad State.

Mir Turab Ali Khan Salarjung continued as prime minister till his death in the year 1883. He served as the prime minister during the reign of Nasir ud duala ‌(1829-57), Afzal ud daula ‌(1857-69), and Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan  (1869-1911).

Among all the prime minister of Asafjahi period, Mir Turab Ali Khan Salar Jung was the most efficient.

Administrative Reforms

For administrative convenience, before Salarjung, Nizam kingdom was divided into Subas. Subas were divided into Sarkars, Sarkars into taluks.

Subadar – Head of Suba.

Talukdar – Head of Taluk.

Talukdar was entrusted with the work of tax collection. They were not given any salary. They were given a percentage in the collected revenue. Some people bribed (Nazaraanaa) the officials of Nizam period to assume the post of Talukdar. The Talukdars used to live in Hyderabad city and appointed Naib Talukdars for the collection of revenue. As this system was defective, Charles Metcalf, the British Resident in Hyderabad state, appointed overseers on Talukdars. When Metcalf left Hyderabad, Salarjung appointed Amans in the place of overseers.

1865 Zilabandi system was started.  Under this 14 districts were formed. Few more districts were added after 1880.

1. Aurangabad

2. Parbani

3. Nanded

4. Indur

5. Bhir

6. Bidar

7. Medak

8. Elagandula (Kareemnagar)

9. Warangal

10. Nalgonda

11. Naldurg

12. Sholapur

13. East Raichur

14. West Raichur

 

After 1880

15. Nagarkarnool

16. Gulbarga

17. Lingasagar

18. Sirpur Tandur

19. Altaf

20. Balda

 

Districts were divided into 74 Taluks. After 1880 total 107 Taluks.

In 1855, Salarjun appointed Talukdars.

In 1865, Salarjung introduced Zillabandi system and divided the state into 14 districts. Later few more districts were formed. Aval Talukdars were appointed to look after the administration of each district, Income and expenditure, collection of revenue, import and export duties / taxation, solving civil and criminal disputes.  ‌Aval Talukdars were equal to collectors of British India. ‌Deputy Collectors were called Duval Talukadars. They were appointed to help the Aval Talukdars. Soayam Talukdars were third rung Talukdars who were appointed to help Duval Talukdars. Soyam Talukdars were equal to Tahasildars of British India.

Appointment of Salaried Staff:Salarjung  started  his  reforms  with  the  gradual  replacement  of  the  then  talukdars with regular salaried talukdars. As it was not possible to dismiss all the talukdars at one stroke, they were replaced gradually as the term  of their respective contracts came to an end. Technically, both the talukdars as well as their subordinates like the tahsildars under him  received  their  appointments  directly  from  the  Government,  to  whom  they  were directly  responsible  forefficient  management  and  good behavior.17Appointment  to  the posts  at  the  lower  levels  were  given  by  the  heads  of  the  respective  establishments.  For middle  level  posts  like  the  Tahsildars,  the  district  anddivisional  level  officers  were vested  with  the  powers  of  appointment  and  promotion,  subject  to  the  approval  or confirmation  by  the  Board  of  Revenue  and  the  Government.  The  appointments  to  the posts of Second and Third Talukdars were in the hands of the Board of revenue but were subject to the approval of the government. However, the Government retained the power to  appoint  the  first  talukdars,  though  it  was  claimed  that  merit  was  the  basis  for recruitment  of  all  posts.  In  the  first  place,  the  powers  and  functions  of  the  officers  were defined  so  that  they  were  prevented  from  using  their  unfettered  discretion  in  the assessment and collection of land revenue. Secondly, the talukdars  were prevented from sub-leasing  their  taluks  or  appointing  their  personal  agents.  Thirdly,  the  subordinate

111officials  were  made  directly  responsible  to  the  government  itself,  thus  reducing  their chances of exploiting ryots. Lastly, the burden on the ryots was greatly reduced.

All the districts in Hyderabad were divided into 5 regions. Kasadat Talukdars were entrusted with the administration of each region. Kasadat Talukdar was equal to Revenue Commissioner of British India.

Land Revenue – Land Revenue was the primary source of income. Excise and Commercial taxes occupied the second and third place. Feaudatory kings and Zamindars paid Peshkush / Tribute to Nizam.

Rytwari system was in force throughout Nizam state.  Zamindari samsthans like Munagala, Amarchintah, Gadwal were there in the kingdoms. ‌

Patel – Heriditary head of village.

Fauzdari Patel – Police duties.

Patwari / Pandey – Accountant in a village.

Deshmukh / Deshpandey – A circle was a group of some villages. Deshmukh / Deshpandeys were heads of such circles.

 

Judicial System

Salarjung reformed Judicial System of Hyderabad to accord proper justice to all the people. Mazlis – e – Marafa – Supreme Court.

MahkaieMarafa – Hight court in Hyderabad.

Buzung Diwani Adalat, Kurda Diwani Adalat – Two Civil Courts in Hyderabad.

Faudari Adalat – Criminal Court in Hyderabad.

Munsif and Mir Adil – District level judges.

Police System

There were no proper police system in Hyderabad before 1885. Kotwal was the traditional police commissioner. Gradually Revenue officers started looking after police duties. At village level also hereditary village watchmen were there.

Mahkam – e – Kotwali was the police department founded by Salarjung.

Nizamat – Police force.

Mahatamin – Police Superintendent.

Amin – Inspector

Chowki – Police station.

In 1867, Salarjung separated Police and Revenue departments.

Other Reforms

Salurjung banned Sati in Hyderabad.

Numaish – In 1856, Numaish was started. It is an industrial exhibition. Nampally Industrial exhibition.

Postal Department – In 1862 – Telegraph line to Mumbai.

Salarjung called intellectuals from other parts of India to Hyderabad. Many north India people belonged to Kayasths, Muslim communities were appointed in important government jobs. Sayyaid Ali Bilgrami, Sayyid Hussain Bilgrami, Mohib Hussain,  Sayyid Mohammad Ali, Mohshin ul Mulk etc., helped Salarjung in administration. Over a period of time, Hyderabad was dominated by non-locals, they occupied all the important positions in Hyderabad. Later, it led to disputes among locals and non-locals, which is popular as Mulki Movement.

During 1857 revolt, Salarjung helped British Officer, Colonel Davidson. He arrested Turrebaz Khan and Moulvi Ahmadulla to suppress 1857 revolt. Nizam Afzaluddaula was honored with the title ‘Star of Inda’ for his co-operation in suppressing the 1857 revolt.

 

Due to the efforts of Salarjung Nizam could get back the places Darashiv and Raichur by 1860.

To get back Birar, Salarjung went to England to discuss with the queen. Salarjung’s these efforts irked Lord Curzon.The British officials who could not digest this, appointed Wikar ul Umara as the Additional Viceroy to Mir Mahabub Ali Khan. Queen waived 50,00,000 rupees debt of Nizam.

On 8th February1883 Salarjung expired. After him the administration in Hyderabad got disturbed. Mulki and Non-Mulki conflict took place. Administration came to a standstill. Nizam appointed Mir Layak Ali Khan, son of Salarjung, and Raja Narendra Bahadur as the co-administrators of Hyderabad.

Mir Layak Ali Khan was a classmate of Nizam VI, Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan.  In 1884, Mir Layak Ali became prime minister, with the title Salarjung II.

Transport Reforms

1863 Hyderabad – Sholapur grant trunk road was constructed.

Britishers’ Madras – Bomaby railway line passed through Gulbarga and Wadi.

1874 – Hyderabad – Wadi railway line work was started. It was completed by 1878. With this transport was developed in Hyderabad.

Two lessen the burden of administration Salarjung created a ministry named Sadar-ul-Maham. Four ministers were there in the ministry. Police, Revenue and Judicial departments were given to three ministers. Fourth minister was entrusted with the departments of Education and Health. All these ministers take instructions from Diwan = Primie Minister.

 

Education Reforms

As he needed better officers for administration, Salarjung established Dar ul Uloom schools in 1855. Urdu and English education was given in these schools.

In 1869లొSalrjung was appointed as the co-viceroy to Mir Mahabub Ali Khan. After this Salarjung established many schools for teaching western education. In 1870 a High School was established in Hyderabad and in 1872 another High School was established in Chader Ghat.

In 1870, Engineering School was established to create better engineers to work in public works department.

In 1873 Madarsa e Alia was established for the children of royal family.

In 1878, Madarsa e Aija was established for the education of royal women.

* Salarjung sent monetary help to Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan for the establishment of Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College of Aligarh. Vikar ul Mulk and Mahasik ul Mulk, two officers of Hyderabd state, acitively participated in the establishment of Mohammadan Anglo Oriental college of Aligarh. In 1881, Salarjun established Gloria Girls College. After the death of Salar Jung, in 1887, Chadarghat High School was united with Madarsa e Alia to form Nizam College.

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