History of Telangana Salrjung history and Reforms
Ans: Salarjung Reforms
On 31 May 1853, Asafjah IV Nasir ud daula appointed Mir Turab Ali Khan as the prime minister of Hyderabad state. He also honoured him with the title Salar Jung. Salarjung introducted many socio, economic, judicial and administrative reforms for the development of Hyderabad State.
Mir Turab Ali Khan Salarjung continued as prime minister till his death in the year 1883. He served as the prime minister during the reign of Nasir ud duala (1829-57), Afzal ud daula (1857-69), and Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan (1869-1911).
Among all the prime minister of Asafjahi period, Mir Turab Ali Khan Salar Jung was the most efficient.
For administrative convenience, before Salarjung, Nizam kingdom was divided into Subas. Subas were divided into Sarkars, Sarkars into taluks.
Subadar – Head of Suba.
Talukdar – Head of Taluk.
Talukdar was entrusted with the work of tax collection. They were not given any salary. They were given a percentage in the collected revenue. Some people bribed (Nazaraanaa) the officials of Nizam period to assume the post of Talukdar. The Talukdars used to live in Hyderabad city and appointed Naib Talukdars for the collection of revenue. As this system was defective, Charles Metcalf, the British Resident in Hyderabad state, appointed overseers on Talukdars. When Metcalf left Hyderabad, Salarjung appointed Amans in the place of overseers.
1865 Zilabandi system was started. Under this 14 districts were formed. Few more districts were added after 1880.
8. Elagandula (Kareemnagar)
13. East Raichur
14. West Raichur
18. Sirpur Tandur
Districts were divided into 74 Taluks. After 1880 total 107 Taluks.
In 1855, Salarjun appointed Talukdars.
In 1865, Salarjung introduced Zillabandi system and divided the state into 14 districts. Later few more districts were formed. Aval Talukdars were appointed to look after the administration of each district, Income and expenditure, collection of revenue, import and export duties / taxation, solving civil and criminal disputes. Aval Talukdars were equal to collectors of British India. Deputy Collectors were called Duval Talukadars. They were appointed to help the Aval Talukdars. Soayam Talukdars were third rung Talukdars who were appointed to help Duval Talukdars. Soyam Talukdars were equal to Tahasildars of British India.
Appointment of Salaried Staff:Salarjung started his reforms with the gradual replacement of the then talukdars with regular salaried talukdars. As it was not possible to dismiss all the talukdars at one stroke, they were replaced gradually as the term of their respective contracts came to an end. Technically, both the talukdars as well as their subordinates like the tahsildars under him received their appointments directly from the Government, to whom they were directly responsible forefficient management and good behavior.17Appointment to the posts at the lower levels were given by the heads of the respective establishments. For middle level posts like the Tahsildars, the district anddivisional level officers were vested with the powers of appointment and promotion, subject to the approval or confirmation by the Board of Revenue and the Government. The appointments to the posts of Second and Third Talukdars were in the hands of the Board of revenue but were subject to the approval of the government. However, the Government retained the power to appoint the first talukdars, though it was claimed that merit was the basis for recruitment of all posts. In the first place, the powers and functions of the officers were defined so that they were prevented from using their unfettered discretion in the assessment and collection of land revenue. Secondly, the talukdars were prevented from sub-leasing their taluks or appointing their personal agents. Thirdly, the subordinate
111officials were made directly responsible to the government itself, thus reducing their chances of exploiting ryots. Lastly, the burden on the ryots was greatly reduced.
All the districts in Hyderabad were divided into 5 regions. Kasadat Talukdars were entrusted with the administration of each region. Kasadat Talukdar was equal to Revenue Commissioner of British India.
Land Revenue – Land Revenue was the primary source of income. Excise and Commercial taxes occupied the second and third place. Feaudatory kings and Zamindars paid Peshkush / Tribute to Nizam.
Rytwari system was in force throughout Nizam state. Zamindari samsthans like Munagala, Amarchintah, Gadwal were there in the kingdoms.
Patel – Heriditary head of village.
Fauzdari Patel – Police duties.
Patwari / Pandey – Accountant in a village.
Deshmukh / Deshpandey – A circle was a group of some villages. Deshmukh / Deshpandeys were heads of such circles.
Salarjung reformed Judicial System of Hyderabad to accord proper justice to all the people. Mazlis – e – Marafa – Supreme Court.
Mahkai – e – Marafa – Hight court in Hyderabad.
Buzung Diwani Adalat, Kurda Diwani Adalat – Two Civil Courts in Hyderabad.
Faudari Adalat – Criminal Court in Hyderabad.
Munsif and Mir Adil – District level judges.
There were no proper police system in Hyderabad before 1885. Kotwal was the traditional police commissioner. Gradually Revenue officers started looking after police duties. At village level also hereditary village watchmen were there.
Mahkam – e – Kotwali was the police department founded by Salarjung.
Nizamat – Police force.
Mahatamin – Police Superintendent.
Amin – Inspector
Chowki – Police station.
In 1867, Salarjung separated Police and Revenue departments.
Salurjung banned Sati in Hyderabad.
Numaish – In 1856, Numaish was started. It is an industrial exhibition. Nampally Industrial exhibition.
Postal Department – In 1862 – Telegraph line to Mumbai.
Salarjung called intellectuals from other parts of India to Hyderabad. Many north India people belonged to Kayasths, Muslim communities were appointed in important government jobs. Sayyaid Ali Bilgrami, Sayyid Hussain Bilgrami, Mohib Hussain, Sayyid Mohammad Ali, Mohshin ul Mulk etc., helped Salarjung in administration. Over a period of time, Hyderabad was dominated by non-locals, they occupied all the important positions in Hyderabad. Later, it led to disputes among locals and non-locals, which is popular as Mulki Movement.
During 1857 revolt, Salarjung helped British Officer, Colonel Davidson. He arrested Turrebaz Khan and Moulvi Ahmadulla to suppress 1857 revolt. Nizam Afzaluddaula was honored with the title ‘Star of Inda’ for his co-operation in suppressing the 1857 revolt.
Due to the efforts of Salarjung Nizam could get back the places Darashiv and Raichur by 1860.
To get back Birar, Salarjung went to England to discuss with the queen. Salarjung’s these efforts irked Lord Curzon.The British officials who could not digest this, appointed Wikar ul Umara as the Additional Viceroy to Mir Mahabub Ali Khan. Queen waived 50,00,000 rupees debt of Nizam.
On 8th February1883 Salarjung expired. After him the administration in Hyderabad got disturbed. Mulki and Non-Mulki conflict took place. Administration came to a standstill. Nizam appointed Mir Layak Ali Khan, son of Salarjung, and Raja Narendra Bahadur as the co-administrators of Hyderabad.
Mir Layak Ali Khan was a classmate of Nizam VI, Mir Mahaboob Ali Khan. In 1884, Mir Layak Ali became prime minister, with the title Salarjung II.
1863 Hyderabad – Sholapur grant trunk road was constructed.
Britishers’ Madras – Bomaby railway line passed through Gulbarga and Wadi.
1874 – Hyderabad – Wadi railway line work was started. It was completed by 1878. With this transport was developed in Hyderabad.
Two lessen the burden of administration Salarjung created a ministry named Sadar-ul-Maham. Four ministers were there in the ministry. Police, Revenue and Judicial departments were given to three ministers. Fourth minister was entrusted with the departments of Education and Health. All these ministers take instructions from Diwan = Primie Minister.
As he needed better officers for administration, Salarjung established Dar ul Uloom schools in 1855. Urdu and English education was given in these schools.
In 1869లొSalrjung was appointed as the co-viceroy to Mir Mahabub Ali Khan. After this Salarjung established many schools for teaching western education. In 1870 a High School was established in Hyderabad and in 1872 another High School was established in Chader Ghat.
In 1870, Engineering School was established to create better engineers to work in public works department.
In 1873 Madarsa e Alia was established for the children of royal family.
In 1878, Madarsa e Aija was established for the education of royal women.
* Salarjung sent monetary help to Sir Sayyad Ahmad Khan for the establishment of Mohammadan Anglo Oriental College of Aligarh. Vikar ul Mulk and Mahasik ul Mulk, two officers of Hyderabd state, acitively participated in the establishment of Mohammadan Anglo Oriental college of Aligarh. In 1881, Salarjun established Gloria Girls College. After the death of Salar Jung, in 1887, Chadarghat High School was united with Madarsa e Alia to form Nizam College.