Write about Nizam ul Mulk?
History of Nizam ul Mulk
Ans: Nizam ul Mulk was the most efficient and trustworthy person to Mughal rulers. As he fed up with the intrigues at Mughal court, he came to Deccan and laid foundation to one of the great kingdoms in modern India.
Nizam ul Mulk’s great grandfather was Alam Shaik. He was a descendant of the first caliph Abu Bakr and a Sufi saint by faith. Alam Shaik belonged to Bukhara kingdom of Samarkhand. As he was well learned person of his time, he got the title Alum-ul-Ulema. Alam Shaik’s wife was a descendant of famous Mir Humdum clan of Samarqand.
Qwaza Abid was Nizam ul Mulk’s grandfather. Qwaza Abid left Samarqand and joined in the service of Aurangazeb as Mansabdar.
* In 1680, Qwaza Abid won the heart of emperor Aurangazeb, by suppressing the revolt of Prince Akbar. For this Aurangazeb honored him with the title ‘Chin Qilich Khan’.
During the early years of Aurangazeb’s reign, Chin Qilich Khan played crucial role and assisted emperor Aurangazeb in strengthening administration and establishing peace and order.
* 1686 – He helped emperor in the conquest of Bijapur.
Aurangazeb rewarded Qwaza Abid by making him as the Subedar of Bidar (Jafarabad). Later he was made the subhahdar of Ajmeer and Multan.
* When Aurangazeb invaded on Golconda, Qwaza Abid marched from Multan to Golconda, along with his army. In this battle he lost his right arm. This news saddened emperor Aurangazeb and sent his Prime Minister Jamadat ul Mulk to know about the health of Qwaza Abid. Qwaza Abid informed that he would return to fight as soon as possible. But after three days, on 30 January 1687, Qwaza Abid was passed away and was buried at Attapur, in Golconda city. Three days after his burial his lost arm was found in the battle field, which was buried at Kismatpura, near Golconda. Thus Qwaza Abid rendered utmost service to Mughals.
Nizam ul Mulk’s father was Mir Shihabuddin Siddiqui. He was born in 1649, at Samarqand. In 1668 he reached Delhi to meet his father. Aurangazeb appointed him as the Mansabdar of 300/70.
- Shihabuddin played curicial role in Mughal conquest against Rana of Udaipur, and earned the title “Khan”.
- Shihabuddin successfully attached Shambhaji and earned title “Firoz Jung”.
- Shihabuddin’s valor during Mughal attack on Bijapur broght him yet another title “Farzund Arjumand”.
- 1687 – Shibabuddin accompanied Aurangazeb in conquering Golconda. During this conquest, Shihabuddin Siddiqui took part as the army chief of Aurangazeb and subjugated Udgir and Adoni forts.
- 1705 – Shihabuddin defeated Sindhia of Malwa and received title of Sipah Salar and was made as Subhahdar of Elichpur, Berar and Gujarath.
Shihabuddin, through his valor and courage attracted Aurangazeb and accompanied him in many conquests and battles. Safiya Khanam was his wife and Mir Qamruddin was his elder son.
Nizam ul Mulk
Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi (20 August 1671 – 1 June 1748) was a nobleman of Indian and Turkic descent and the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. He established the Hyderabad state, and ruled it from 1724 to 1748. He is also known by his titles Chin Qilich Khan (awarded by emperor Aurangzeb in 1690–91), Nizam-ul-Mulk (awarded by Farrukhsiyar in 1713) and Asaf Jah (awarded by Muhammad Shah in 1725.
Mother: Wazir un-nisa Begum.
Born at Agra on 20 August 1671 as Mir Qamar ud-din Khan Siddiqi. The name was given to him by the Mughal Emperor Aurangazeb.
Nizam and Aurangazeb Relation
Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan displayed considerable skill as a warrior and before he reached his teens began accompanying his father into battle. In 1688 aged 17 he joined his father in the successful assault on the fort of Adoni and was promoted to the rank of 2000 zat and 500 horse and presented with the finest Arabian horse.
At the age of nineteen, the Emperor bestowed on him the title “Chin Fateh Khan”. For fighting on and capturing the fort of Wagingera, he was awarded with the title of “Chin Qilich Khan” (boy swordsman). He was raised to rank of 5000 horse and awarded 15 million dams, a jeweled sabre and a third elephant.
At 26, he was appointed Commander in Chief and Viceroy, first in Bijapur, then Malwa and later of the Deccan.
Life after Aurangzeb
After Aurangzeb’s death he was appointed Governor of Oudh. After Bahadur Shah Muazzam ‘s death he opted for a private life in Delhi. His sabbatical (paid leave) was cut short when in 1712, Farrukhsiyar son of Azim-ush-Shan convinced him to take up the post of Viceroy of the Deccan with the titles ‘Nizam ul-Mulk’ (Regulator of the Realm) and Fateh Jung.
His enemies accuse Nizam ul-Mulk of building his own power-base independently of the Mughals in Delhi, while continuing to give obeisance to the throne and even remitting money to the centre. He was then called upon by Farrukhsiyar to help fight off the Sayyid Brothers. Farrukhsiyar lost his strife against the Saadaat i Baarha Sayyid Brothers and was killed.
As Grand Wazir
Later Nizam ul-Mulk was rewarded for defeating the Sayyid Brothers with the post of Vizier in the court of Muhammad Shah.
But all did not work as planned. Nizam ul-Mulk’s attempts to reform the corrupt Mughal administration with its cliques of concubines and eunuchs created many enemies. According to his biographer, Yusuf Husain, he grew to hate the “harlots and jesters” who were the Emperor’s constant companions and greeted all great nobles of the realm with lewd gestures and offensive epithets. Nizam ul-Mulk’s desire to restore the etiquette of the Court and the discipline of the State to the standard of Shah Jahan’s time earned him few friends. The courtiers poisoned the mind of the Emperor against him.
Viceroy of the Deccan
In 1715, Mubariz Khan was appointed as the Viceroy of Deccan by Emperor Farrukhsiyar. Mubariz Khan had successfully restored law and order in the Deccan but he was also loyal to the Mughal throne making only token payments and dividing plum administrative posts among his sons, his uncle and his favourite slave eunuchs. In 1724 Nizam ul-Mulk resigned his post in disgust and set off for the Deccan to resume the Vice-royalty.
Battle of Shakar Kheda 1724
Nizam had to fight with Mubariz Khan for the viceroyalty of Deccan. Nizam defeated Mubariz Khan in the battle of Shakar Kheda, Birar. The encounter was short but decisive. Wrapped in his bloodsoaked shawl, Mubariz Khan drove his war elephant out of the battle until he died from his wounds. His severed head was then sent to Delhi as proof of Nizam ul-Mulk’s determination to annihilate anyone who stood in his way.
Now came from the Emperor an elephant, jewels and the title of Asaf Jah, with directions to settle the country, repress the turbulent, punish the rebels and cherish the people. Asaf Jah, or the one equal to Asaf, the Grand Vizier in the court of King Solomon, was the highest title that could be awarded to a subject of the Mughal Empire. There were no lavish ceremonies to mark the establishment of the Asaf Jahi dynasty in 1724. The inauguration of the first Nizam took place behind closed doors in a private ceremony attended by the new ruler’s closest advisors. Nizam ul-Mulk never formally declared his independence and insisted that his rule was entirely based on the trust reposed in him by the Mughal Emperor.
In 1725, the Marathas clashed with the Nizam, who refused to pay Chauth and Sardeshmukhi to the Marathas. The war began in August 1727 and ended in March 1728. The Nizam was defeated at Battle of Palkhed near Nashik by Bajirao I, the son of Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath Bhatt. During a campaign against the Maratha in the year 1730, Nizam-ul-Mulk had no less than 1026 War elephants, 225 of which were armoured.
Invasion of Nadirshah
In 1738, from beyond the Hindu kush, Nader Shah started advancing towards Delhi through Afghanistan and the Punjab.
Nizam ul-Mulk sent his troops to Karnal, where Mughal Emperor Muhammed Shah’s forces had gathered to turn back the Persian army. But the combined forces were cannon fodder for the Persian cavalry and its superior weaponry and tactics. Nader Shah defeated the combined armies of Muhammed Shah and the Nizam.
Nader Shah entered Delhi and stationed his troops there. Some locals of Delhi had a quarrel and attacked his soldiers. At this, Nader Shah flew into a rage, drew out his sword from the scabbard and ordered the City to be looted and ransacked. Muhammad Shah was unable to prevent Delhi from being destroyed.
When Nader Shah ordered the massacre in Delhi, neither the helpless Mughal Emperor Muhammed Shah nor any of his Ministers had the courage to speak to Nader Shah and negotiate for truce.
Only Asif Jah came forward and risked his life for by going to Nader Shah and asking him to end the bloodbath of the city. Legend has it that Asif Jah said to Nader Shah.
“You have taken the lifes of thousands of people of the city, if you still wish to continue the bloodshed, then bring those dead back to life and then kill them again, for there are none left to be killed.”
These words had a tremendous impact on Nader Shah – he immediately put his sword inside its scabbard, ended the massacre and returned to Persia.
Nizam and British
The Nizam was well suited to rule his own territory. The administration was under control.
In March 1742, the British who were based in Fort St. George in Madras, sent a modest hamper to Nizam ul-mulk in recognition of his leadership of the most important of the Mughal successor states. In return, the Nizam sent one horse, a piece of jewelry and a note warning the British that they had no right to mint their own currency, to which they complied.
The 1st Nizam had no throne, crown or symbol of sovereignty. Coins were minted with the Emperor’s name until 1858. It was in the name of the Mughal ruler and not the Nizam, prayers were read out in the Friday Sermon. By this time, though Mughal Empire was weak, still Qamaruddin Khan Siddiqi showed his loyalty to the Mughals.
As the Viceroy of the Deccan, the Nizam was the head of the executive and judicial departments and the source of all civil and military authority of the Mughal Empire in the Deccan. All officials were appointed by him directly or in his name. Later, assisted by a Diwan the Nizam drafted his own laws, raised his own armies, flew his own flag and formed his own government.
Acknowledging Muhammad Shah’s farman, Nizam ul-mulk had good reason to be grateful. Alongside his own personal wealth came the spoils of war and status, he was also entitled to the lion’s share of gold unearthed in his dominions, the finest diamonds and gems from Golconda mines and the income from his vast personal estates.
He then divided his newly acquired kingdom into three parts. One third became his own private estate known as the Sarf-i-Khas, one third was allotted for the expenses of the government and was known as the Diwani territory, and the remaining part was distributed to Muslim nobles (Jagirdar, Zamindars, Deshmukh), who in return paid nazars (gifts) to the Nizam for the privilege of collecting revenue from the villages under their authority. The most important of these were the Paigah estates. The Paigah’s doubled up as generals, making it easy to raise an army should the Nizams Dominions come under attack. They were only second to the Nizams family, they were very important in the running of the government and even today their legacy lingers on with ruined palaces and tombs dotted around the once very feudal city of Hyderabad. On the sanads (scrolls) granting them their lands, inscribed in Persian were the words “as long as the Sun and the Moon are in rotation”. The owners of the estates were mostly absentee landlords who cared little for the condition of the lands under their control. Jagirs were usually split into numerous pieces in order to prevent the most powerful of the nobles from entertaining any thought of carving out an empire for themselves. The system, which continued relatively unchanged until 1950, ensured a steady source of income for the state treasury and the Nizam himself.
- 1685 : Khan
- 1691 : Khan Bahadur
- 1697 : Chin Qilich Khan (by Emperor Aurangazeb
- 9 December 1707 : Khan-i-Dauran Bahadur
- 1712 : Ghazi ud-din Khan Bahadur and Firuz Jang
- 12 January 1713 : Khan-i-Khanan, Nizam ul-Mulk and Fateh Jang (by Emperor Farrukhsiyar
- 12 July 1737 : Asaf Jah (by Emperor Muhammad Sha
- 26 February 1739 : Amir ul-Umara and Bakshi ul-Mamalik (Paymaster-General)
- Final : Chin Fateh Khan, Chin Qilich Khan, Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah, Khan-i-Dauran Bahadur, Khan-i-Khana, Fateh Jung, Firuz Jang, Ghazi-ud-din Bahadur, Amir-ul-Umara, Bakhshi-ul-Mumalik
- 1701–1705 : Faujdar of the Carnatic and Talikota
- 1705–1706 : Faujdar of the Bijapur, Azamnagar and Belgaum
- 1706–1707 : Faujdar of Raichur, Talikota, Sakkhar and Badkal
- 1707 : Faujdar of Firoznagar and Balkona
- 9 December 1707 – 6 February 1711 : Subedar of Oudh and Faujdar of Gorakhpur
- 12 January 1713 – April 1715 : Subedar of the Deccan and Faujdar of the Carnatic
- April 1717-7 January 1719 : Faujdar of Moradabad
- 7 February-15 March 1719: Subedar of Patna
- 15 March 1719 – 1724 : Subedar of Malwa
- 1722–1724 : Subedar of Gujarat