Give an account of the role of Intellectuals, Students and Employees in 1969 Movement?
Ans: Intellectuals and students played a key role in 1969 Telangana movement. Telangana Parirakshanala Samithi, Telangana Praja Samithi and Forum of Osmania University professors played key role in 1969 Telangana movement.
- Telangana Parirakshanala Committee (Committee of Telangana Safeguards): On 13th January 1969, Intellectuals in Hyderabad founded Telangana Parirakshanala Committee. Katam Lakshmi Narayana was the chairman of Telangana Parirakshanala.
Members of Telangana Parirakshanala Samithi:
Mahadev Singh (Socialist Party)
Salauddin Owaisi (Muzlis Party)
Santapuri Raghava Rao
- Madhava Rao
Students’ movements were unconditionally supported by Telangana Parirakshanala Samithi.
Telangana Praja Samithi: Inspired by the students’ movements for Telangana, to support them Telangana Praja Samithi was founded by Ananthula Madan Mohan. The Telangana Praja Convention founded in February 1969 was turned renamed as Telangana Praja Samithi on 25th March 1969. Ananthula Madan Mohan, an advocate from Siddipet, was the found of Telangana Praja Samithi. T. Purushotthama Rao was the first MLA to support Telangana Praja Samithi. Later this party was led by Marri Chenna Reddy and Konda Venkata Ranaga Reddy in totally wrong direction and selfish gains.
Forum of Osmania University Professors: Professors from Osmania University showed their solidarity to Telangana Movement and they convened a meeting at YMCA on 20th May 1969. In this meeting, professors from Osmania University submitted research papers which give details of exploitation Telangana by Andhra leaders. All the seminar papers were published as a book titled ‘Telangana Movement and Investigative Focus’.
Students’ Role in First Phase Telangana Movement: Students in Khammam agitated against the illegal recruitment of Andhra people in Kothagudem Thermal Power Project. They demanded for the implementation of Telangana Safeguards. Students of Osmania University joined hands with them.
Role of students of Osmania University in First Phase of Telangana Movement: Meeting of all college students’ unions under Osmania University was held meeting was held in Osmania University on 12th January 1969.
Venkatrama Reddy, leader of Osmania Students’s Association was the president of this meeting.
Telangana students’ Action Committee for the first time in this meeting took a resolution of achieving separate statehood for Telangana is its sole aim. After this meeting the students of Osmania University were divided into Safeguards and Separatists.
Safeguards aspired only aspired for special protections to Telangana. They did not demand for statehood to Telangana.
Safeguards had the support of CPI party students’ association. Demanding the implementation of safeguards for Telangana, Venkatrama Reddy went on hunger strike before the secretariat of Andhra Pradesh.
Separatists formed as a group named ‘Telangana Students Action Committee’. Mallikarjun was the General Secretary of Separatists. On 16th January 1969, both the groups organized agitations individually.
First Lathi Charge on students in Telangana movement 18th January 1969: On 18th January 1969, students led a rally under the leadership of separatist leader Mallikharjun, from Nizam College to Koti. On the same day Safeguard students led rally from Koti to Abids. To prevent clash between both the groups, police dispersed the agitators with lathi charge. Thus for the first time students had to face lathi in Telangana movement on 18th January 1969.
First rifle firing in Hyderabad during Telangana movement 20th January 1969: Students attacked on Shamshabad railway station in large number on 20th January 1969. To disburse the agitators, police fired on students. Many students were injured in this firing.
Osmania University non-teaching staff organized a one day strike to show solidarity to the student’s movement. Then onwards the venue of students’ movements permanently changed from Nizam College to Osmania University. Shankar was the first martyr in the 1969 separate Telangana movement.
Reddy Hostel Meeting 8-9th March 1969: Students from Osmania University toured all the Telangana villages to educate people regarding the exploitative administration of Andhra leaders. 35 students reached Reddy Hostel in Hyderabad after completing their awareness tours. These students convened 2 days meeting in Reddy Hostel.
Srimathi Sada Lakshmi was the president of these meetings.
Prof. Rapadi Satyanarayana gave inaugural lecture.
Prominent leaders who attended the meeting were:
Vandemataram Ramachandra Rao
Role of Employees in 1969 Separate Telangana Movement: Employees played important role in 1969 Telangana movement. When Telangana employees realised that there were disparities and discrimination in recruitment and promotion to Telangana employees they joined hands with the movement started by students.
Electricity Department Employees: In April 1968, Andhra Pradesh government gave orders to keep the post vacant if eligible Telangana person is not found for a particular job reserved for a Telangana person. The same rule was applied in Kothagudem Thermal Power Plant and removed non-mulkis from jobs.
The employees of Andhrapradesh State Electricity Board Autonomous employees filed a case in High Court. Justice Kuppu Swamy, the then High Court Chief Justice in his judgment on 3rd January 1969, declared that the Electricity Board does not come under the purview of Mulki rules.
Mulkis who resented this verdict planned to go for a hunger strike from 10th January 1969. As a part of this a daily wage labourers’ leader named Krishna started hunger strike from 10th January 1969.
Engineers’ Movement: Due to war with Pakistan in 1965, State government cut 5% of budget allocations. Many temporary employees were removed from jobs, due to which many Telangana engineers lost their jobs. They agitated against Andhra Government.
Resentment among Teacher: Inn 1959, due to the emergence of Panchayati Raj institutions, many new schools were established in Telangana. On the pretext of scarcity of mathematics and science teachers in Telangana, many Andhra persons were recruited as teachers in Telangana. Due to this teaching recruitments were stopped in Telangana in the following years. Due to this Telangana teachers agitated against the biased policy of Andhra rulers.
Other employees: Telangana employees were not given proper promotions. Common seniority list was prepared combing the employees of both Andhra and Telangana. Sever injustice was done to Telangana employees due to common seniority list. Due to this reason Telangana employees participated in Telangana movement.
Employees and Teachers Action Committee: On 11th March 1969, Employees and Teachers Action Committee was formed under the leadership of K.R. Amos, leader of TNGOs. Employees and teachers observed 17th March 1969 as the day of struggle.