Give an account of the achievements of Prathapa Rudra
Prataparudra -II succeeded his grandmother Rudramba in A.D.1295 and ruled till A.D.1323. He was the grandson of Rani Rudramadevi, but adapted him as her son on the advise of her father as she was not having her own son. According to the kaifiats found in Rayalaseema Kakatiya Prataparudra was an important ruler. In some records he was mentioned as Prataparudra Maharaja. . He is one of the most important and notable rulers of the Kakatiya dynasty. He was the last ruler of Kakatiya dynasty. Prataparudra-II ( Virarudra ) is one among the three greatest rulers of Kakatiya dynasty rulers. The other two were Prataparudra – I (Rudradeva) and Rudramadevi.
Rudramadevi died in the month of November, 1289 CE., fighting battle against the rebel Kayastha chief Ambadeva. On the death of Rudrama, her grandson Prataparudra, who was adopted by her as son and as heir apparent on the advice of her father Ganapatideva, ascended the throne at the beginning of the year 1280 CE. Prataparudra had to fight battles throughout his reign against either the internal rebels or the external foes.
A number of accounts states that Prataparudra began his rule in Dharanikota, an ancient town in Guntur distrct, before moving to Warangal It clearly indicates that kakatiyas ruled coastal Andhra and Rayalseema region uniting the entire Telugu country. King Erikal Mutthuraju, who ruled parts of Rayalaseema around 575 A.D, could be from the same Erukala tribe to which Kakatiyas are said to belong. He pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Medak and Raichur. In the reign of Kakatiya Prataparudra II, the Nellore region became part and parcel of the Kakatiya empire and lost its political significance.
In the latter half of 13th century, the Cuddapah district fallen in to the hands of Ambadeva who had temporarily usurped the Kakatiya crown and ruled from Vallur, 15 Kms. from Cuddapah. Kakatiya King Prataparudra succeeded this throne after death of Ambadeva and ruled the district with Warrangal as the Capital during the opening of 14th century.
He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided the kingdom into 77 Nayakships. Some of these reforms were later adopted in the Vijayanagar empire. He was one of the first Telugu kings who defended the Telugu country from the onslaught of Muslim invaders. It was only after the death of Prataparudra that Muslims could enter into Telugu lands to rule the Telugu people.
Historians of the Southern Nayaks note that the Palaiyakkarar system might have originated from the Kakatiya dynasty’s model by Prataparudra, who similarly divided his kingdom among 77 Padmanayakas. Palaiyakkarar is the head of Palayam (a fortified district) of the Madurai Nayak kingdom.
Fight against Muslim invaders
In A.D.1303, the Delhi Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji sent an army to plunder the kingdom. But Prataparudra defeated them at Upparapalli in Karimnagar district. In A.D. 1310, when another army under Malik Kafur invaded Warangal and indulged in murder and mayhem around the fort, it prompted King Prataparudra to make a pact and offer an enormous amount of tribute.In A.D.1318, when Ala-ud-din Khilji died, Prataparudra withheld the tribute and asserted his independence in 1320 CE. . It provoked another invasion of the Muslims. In A.D.1321, Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country then called Tilling. He laid siege to Warangal, but owing to internal dissensions he called off the siege and returned to Delhi. Within a short period, he came back with a much bigger army. In spite of unpreparedness, Prataparudra fought bravely. For want of supplies, he surrendered to the enemy who sent him to Delhi as a prisoner, and he died on the way. King Prataparudra, who was taken as prisoner committed suicide by drowning himself in the river Narmada while being taken to Delhi.Thus ended the Kakatiya rule, opening the gates of the Telugu land to anarchy and confusion yielding place to an alien ruler. After Prataparudra got defeated and committed suicide, Tughlak appointed some muslim governers to rule erst while Kakateeya ruled regions. This was the first appearance of Muslims in the Deccan.