Give an account of Socio, political, economic, religious and cultural conditions of Vemulavada Chalukya period
Military Organisation of Chalukyas
Chalukyan emperors used to lead their armies during the wars.
Senapathi / Maha baladhikrutha – Great Commander – in – Chief.
Kshatriyas became famous as soldiers with courage and bravery. Due to Chalukya, Pallava, Chola, Rashtrakuta and Kalyani Chalukyas conflicts, there used to be constant wars. As a result, the need for soldiers increased and persons with courage and bravery from all castes were taken and appointed as soldiers and commanders-in-chief. Because of wars, the emperor, out of the income that he received and the income that was received from war lootings, greater portion was spent for army maintenance.
Chalukyan feudatories used to come as and when needed, with their armies and wage wars for the protection of the Chalukyan kingdom. Hence, the main strength of the Eastern Chalukyan kingdom was the forces of their feudatory chiefs.
Foot soldiers, elephant forces and naval force have been main organs.
Aihole inscription of Pulakesi II is giving details about six types of army organisations.
- Mula or Hereditary force.
- Bhritya or those who accompanied the soldiers.
- Sreni or Guild based feudatory forces.
- Mitra or armies of the friendly kingdoms.
- Atavka or forces of the forest based tribes.
- Amitra or captured forces.
Durgadhipathi – Forts were under the control of Durgadhipathi. The responsibility of protection of a fort fully rested on Durgadhipathi. Some army used to be under the control of Durgadhipathi. They were paid either in cash or allotted the revenue of some villages.
Chalukyan Age Economic Development
Agriculture – Irrigation – Crops – Land Revenue – Other Taxes
Agriculture increased. New lands were brought under plough.
As Agraharas were donated to the Brahmins, they became landlords. Shudras cultivated their lands and remained loyal to them.
Land was divided into 4 categories for the convenience of fixing the tax.
- Wet / low lying land.
- Dry lands
- Sandy lands (Garuvu)
- Garden lands
Land tax was fixed based on the water facility, land fertility and crop yield.
Commercial crops mentioned the Chalukyan inscriptions: Coconut, betel leaf, betel nut gardens, mango, sugarcane, cotton, grams and pulses.
Dug wells, constructed tanks and canals for the pooling of water resources.
Rich people, feudatories, wealthy farmers used to help in the construction of tanks and their maintenance.
Chaita tank and Bhima samudram tank were mentioned in the inscriptions of Arikesari I. Those tanks are supplying water to agriculture fields even today.
Chalukyan age literature
Telugu language started flourishing.
Most of the Chalukyan and Chola inscriptions were in verse form. Every verse inscription turned out to be a masterpiece.
As per Chebrolu inscriptions, the literary styles of those days were Marga and Deshi.
Nanne Choda was the greatest poet of Chalukyan period.
Nanne Choda’s title – Kavi Rajashekhara.
The book authored by Nanne Choda – Kumara Sambhavam. On his book the influence of Kannada language and literary traditions was high.
Official Language of various kingdoms
Satavahana – Prakrit.
Ikshwakus – Prakrit.
Vishnukunds – Sanskrit.
Eastern Chalukyas – Telugu.
Language of Chalukyan inscriptions – More in Sanskrit. Some in Kannada and Telugu.
Badami Chalukyans issued inscriptions in Kannada language.
Chalukyas of Renadu area were the first rulers to issue inscriptions in Telugu language.
Vipparla inscription of Jayasimha Vallabha was the first Telugu inscription issued by Eastern Chalukyas. It was the first Eastern Chalukyan inscription also.
Renati Cholas, Western Chalukyas and their feudatories, Bana kings used Telugu language.
During those days Prakrit words got mixed into Telugu language inscriptions extensively. Inscriptions language could not be understood by us.
The word ‘Reddi’ was used in the form of ‘Rattagudi’, ‘Rattadi’ and ‘Rattodi’.
‘Purugulu’ appeared as ‘puruvullu’.
‘Rachuvasu’ means destroyer (naashanam cheyuvadu).
For plural number were are adding ‘lu’, during those days ‘gudulu’ was written as ‘gudlu’ and ‘madulu’ was mentioned in ‘madlu’.
‘Padamata’ was written as ‘paruta’.
Instead of Chola and Choda they used ‘Chora’.
Different types of sentence writing was there in the Macherla inscription of Jayasimha Vallabha I and Potladurthi-Malepadu inscription of Renati Cholas.
By the time of Gunaga Vijayadhithya Telugu language had the influence of Sanskrit language.
Poetry writing started with local metre, guided by Matra and Gana.
Tharuvoja in Panduranga inscription.
Seesa in Kandukuru and Dharmavaram inscriptions
Madhyakkara in Bezawada inscriptions.
Gradually Telugu language attained ‘Kavya’ shape.
Chalukyan kings greatly contributed for Telugu literary development.
Mallikharjuna Panditharadhya has authored Shiva Thathva Saaram. Though it consists of more than 400 Kanda verses, it is considered as Sataka only. Hence the credit of starting Sataka style in Telugu goes to Mallikharjuna Pandithaaraadhya.
Pampa Kavi’s Mallikharjuna Vijayam was the first Kavya in Kannada. Pampa belonged to the Chalukyan age.
Tikkana Somayaji was the greatest poet not only among the Chalukyan poets, but among all the Telugu poets. He was not only a great minister and a poet. He was a great cultural movement. In literary field, he has a remarkable place.
Bhaskara mantri was the elder brother of Tikkana.
Ketana was Tikkana’s elder father.
Bhaskara Mantri authored Bhaskara Ramayanam.
Ketana wrote ‘Andhra Bhashaa Bhooshanam’ , ‘Dashakumara Charithra’ and ‘Vignaaneshwara’.
Marana wrote Markandeya Purana.
Tikkana wrote Nirvachanothara Ramayanam. It was dedicated to Manumasiddi.
Palkuriki somanatha wrote Basava Puranam, Panditharaadhya Charithra.
Narayana battu helped Nannaya in writing ‘Andhra Mahabhaaratha’.
Chalukyan Art and Architecture
Royal courts and Tempes of Chalukyan times had been the centers for the arts of music, dance, architecture and sculpture.
At Badami, early Chalukyan rulers constructed many cave temples. Prominent temples came up at Aihole and Pattadakal in Karnataka.
70 temples at Aihole area and 10 Temples at Pattadakal have been constructed. They erected a rectangular platform and over it row of pillars was arranged which could bear the load of roof. Wall were not there on four sides. This style was called as Sandhagaram. This structure might have been used as the meeting place of village elders and people.
In Mahaboob Nagar district of present day Telangana, at Alampur Navabrahma temples were constructed. Among them, only six had compound walls around them. Remaining temples stay outside this compound wall. The names of all these temples had the word ‘Brahma’ at their end, but all of them are Shiva temples. Amonth the nine, Vishwabrahma temple was the biggest one. Even today, these temples are receiving acts of worship.
At Vemulavaada 9th and 10th centuries temples.
Bhimeshwara temple at Vemulavada was built by Baddega in 9th century.