Give a detailed account of Mulki movements
Mulki Movement in Deccan and Hyderabad State
‘Mulk’ means Mother Land. The local people of Hyderabad state fought against the settlers for their rights over the jobs in Government services. That struggle is known as Mulki Movement. Such Mulki movements took place in Hyderabad time and again since medieval period. The Mulki rule had its origin in Bahamani period. During the Khaljis and Tughluqs’ invasion on South India some Hindus and Muslims from North India came to Hyderabad State and settled. They slowly amalgamated with the local people. The local people were called as Deccanis. During the reign of Bahamani Sultans Iranians, Iraqis and Turks came to south and they rose to prominence. Those who came from outside were called as Apakis. The Apakis settled in business. They made use of the Government incentives to the business and other subsidies and in no time they became rich and assumed important positions in the kingdom. The Deccanis were confined to lesser positions and became second grade citizens. The unrest in Deccanis led to a conflict between the two parties. The Sunni and Shia conflict added fuel to the fire. The Apakis were Sunnis and the Deccanis were Shias.
Sepoys in the Bahamani army were Deccanis. Due to the Deccani’s non co-operation Ahmad Shah-I was defeated in Gujarath expedition. During the reign of Ahmad Shah-I, Ahmad Shah-II and Ahmad Shah-III, prime minister post was occupied by Apakis. Mohammad Gawan an Apaki was the prime minister of Ahmad Shah-III. He was very efficient and most successful in introducing welfare measures. But his tenure also had a darker side. Gawan established a University at Bidar, the then capital of Bahamani Kingdom. Prime place was given in the University for the Apaki students and teachers. As a result the number of educated Apakis increased and they secured most of the important Government jobs. This resulted in a conflict among the Apaki and Deccani groups. Ultimately this resulted in the disintegration of Bahamani kingdom.
Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of Qutb Shahi dynasty was also an Apaki. In spite of that he never disfavoured the Deccanis. He learnt lessons from the disintegration of Bahamani kingdom and gave all important positions to the localites i.e., Deccanis. They also encouraged the local language Telugu. During the Abul Hasan Tanisha time Akkanna, a Hindu was prime minister and Madanna, brother of Akkanna, was ‘peshkar’. As the Qutb Shahis respected the local language and local people, there did not arise any Mulki conflict during their period.
After the 1857 revolt, Mughal Empire and some other local kingdoms and princely states came to an end. The officers, artists and poets of those places became unemployed, came to south seeking employment and settled in Hyderabad state. Hyderabad was very peaceful place at that time also. During the reign of V nawab, his prime minister Salarjung made some administrative reforms and introduced Hyderabad Civil Services. Salarjung invited educated people from Aligarh University and employed them in Hyderabad state. He expected them to train the local people and leave, on the contrary instead of training the local people they settled in Hyderabad and invited their relatives and managed to get jobs for them in Hyderabad. Soon the Deccanis became a minority in case of Government jobs. Again there arose the Mulki and Non Mulki conflict.
During the reign of Mahabub Ali, the Nizam VI, in 1880, Urdu, the language of common people became official language replacing Parsi. English was made a compulsory language. Again this decision hindered the growth of the local people. As there were no sufficient number of local people who were fluent both in Urdu and English, this gave chance to the people of other places to occupy important positions in the state. Due to the demand for the people who can speak English fluently, they were paid high compared to the local people again local people became second citizens. This resulted in the upsurge of the Mulki movement. Government introduced Special Hyderabad Civil services and gave all the posts to the local people.
As the Britishers started interfering in the Hyderabad state administration, they employed more Britishers in Hyderabad State administration. Casan Walker was appointed as the finance secretary of Nizam. Later he was made the finance minister. He continued in that position till 1912 and during that period he indiscriminately filled all the Government posts with Non-Mulkis. Maharaja Sir Kishan Parshad fought for the rights of Mulkis. He was successful in getting declared the Non-Mulkis as the temporary employees. Due to his efforts localites were given high positions in Government jobs.
After the establishment of Osmania University in the year 1918, Scholars were invited from North India to translate various books in to Urdu. The North Indians declared Lucknavi Urdu as the standard and elite people Urdu and looked down the Deccani Urdu. Their language domination was continued till the police action in 1948.
Mir Osman Ali Khan’s 1919 farman consists of Mulki Rules. According to this farman those who took birth in Hyderabad are considered as Mulkis. Apart from them those who lived fifteen years continuously in Hyderabad State and who don’t have the idea of going back to their native place are also considered as Mulkis. Only Mulkis should be appointed in the Government Jobs. With the 1933 farman Nizam stressed the same points once again.
‘The Nizam Subjects’ league’ (Nizam prajala sangham) was established in 1934 with an aim to safeguard the rights of the Mulkis. Sir Nizamath Jung was its President and ‘Hyderabad for Hyderabadis’ was its motto.
Between the operation Polo and General elections (1948-1952) so many Andhra region people came to Hyderabad and joined in Government Jobs. The Andhrites were under the direct British rule since so long. Due to that reason the trained Andhra people were appointed in Telangana jobs. Immediately the Andhra people brought their relatives to Telanagana and were successful in getting jobs for them too. Some set up business. The Andhra people who settled here started humiliating the Urdu mixed Telangana Telugu. They considered themselves as cultured and Telanganites as barbarians. They posed as they came to educate and reform the Telangana people. They violated Mulki law with the fake Mulki certificates. Andhra people encouraged bribing. Before their intruding there were no signs of bribery in Telangana.
To escape from the tyrannical rule of Nizam, people of Hyderabad State, welcomed Indian Army for Police Action.
To get rid of the corrupt officers, Madras Government sent them to Hyderabad State. The Tamil and Andhra officers who came from Madras State caused problems to Hydarabadis with their weird behavior.
Boorgula Ramakrishna Rao democratic Goverment was formed in Hyderabad State. Newly established government did not take proper measures to control the infestation of non local officials. In fact the new government supported the non mulkis illegal activities. This caused a sense of insecurity in the locals.
Mulki Movement In Warangal
Students of Warangal started this movement and Students demanded the rules and regulations for issuing the Mulki certificate, cancellation of fake Mulki certificates and issuing of Mulki certificates after proper verification and proofs.
Those demands were put in a form of resolution and were announced the congress municipal councilar A. Buchchaiah. On August 7, Khammam students also agitated against the non Mulkis.
Paartha Saaradhi, Divisional inspector of Schools in Warangal, transferred 180 teachers from Warangal and filled the places with non local teachers. Local students started condemning this through agitations.
26 July 1952, a Student’s JAC was formed.26 July 1952 – Shendarkar, Deputy Director of Education, came to Warangal.26 July 1952 – Students organised a rally from Hanmakonda Cross Roads to Subedari.Students JAC – 28 July 1952A new Students JAC was formed on 28 July 1952. Student’s JAC consisted of a representative from every school and college. Buchhaiah, a student, was elected as the convener of student JAC. Student JAC made a resolution to agitate against non mulki employees. RaamaChari who was a minister of Layak Ali council of ministers, started Hyderabad Hitha Rakshana Samithi and gave the slogan Gair Mulki Go back’ (Non locals Go back).In warangal Hayagriva chaari gave full support to this movement. Hyderabad and other places students also joined hands with the Anti non Mulkis. Keshavarao Jadav led the Hyderabad anti non Mulki movement. Mulki Movement in Hyderabad 31 August 1952- To resent against the lathi charge against the students of Hanmakonda, Hyderabad students organized a strike in Hyderabad. 31 August 1952 Students organized a huge rally from Saifabad College to Abids.1 September 1952 – As it was a day of Bakrid festival students did not organize any strike or rally. Shiva Kumar Lal, Hyderabad Police Commissioner, warned the parents not to allow their kids to participate in violent activities.2 September 1952 – Students agitated in large number with the slogans “Non Mulki go back”, “Idli Sambar ghar ko javo”, “Student’s Union Zindabad”. Students from all school and college from Hyderabad and Secunderabad, participated in the protests from 30 August to 2 September 1952.3 September 1952 – Shivakumar Lal issued orders prohibiting agitations. The leaders could not control the anger of students of city college. Konda Lakshman Bapuji tried his level best to control the students, but failed. Police opened fire on the Mulki Agitators at City college and Pattarghat. According to Justice Pingali and Jagan Mohan Reddy report, two persons were killed in this incident.4 September 1952 – Students agitated demanding to handover the dead bodies. Again police opened fire and killed four agitators.In the September 3rd and 4th incidents, 147 students and 104 police were wounded.Boorgula Ramakrishna Rao, the then Chief Minister of Hyderabad State, himself entered into the scene and tried to control the students. In spite of his request, students did not stop agitating.V.D. Desh Pandey (Communist Party) Onkar Prasad (Communist Party)Dr.Jaya Surya Nayudu (s/o Sarojini Nayudu), Padmaja Nayudu (d/o Sarojini Nayudu, Sri Dange, Dr. Melkote, Bakr Ali Mirza, Venkata Swami supported the non mulkis. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao and Swami Ramananda Theertha gave statements in favour of Non Mulkis. On September 3, this movement took a violent turn. Police fired on the peaceful agitators, as a result two students were killed and many others got injured. Students retaliated by burning the police stations. It led to curfew. Jaya shanker participated in this movement as a student. Kaloji announced his support to the movement. Total 18 people were succumbed to rifle shots and hundreds of people injured. Government arrested and tortured about 350 persons including students and many editors and reporter. Thus government forcefully suppressed the movement.