Give a clear picture of history of Vishnukundins
Vishnukunds have a primary place among the most important royal dynasties in the history Telugu country. They have not only spread the name and fame of the Telugu country far and wide, but have also introduced several new practices in the fields of religion, language and culture.
Vishnukunds started their political stint on the bank of the river Krishna and extended their empire upto river Narmada.
For some time they have controlled the land between the three seas, Arabian ocean, Bay of Bengal, and Indian Ocean).
Vishnukunds ruled for nearly 210 years.
Amarapuram, Indrapala Nagaram / Sukrapuram, Dendaluru, Bezawada, and Purani Sangamam were Vishnukuds capitals.
Amarapuram – A mandal in Mahabub Nagar district, Telangana.
Indrapala Nagaram / Sukrapuram – located on the outskirts of Tummalagudem village in Valigonda mandal of Nalgonda district, Telangana.
Dendluru- near Pedavegi, West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.
Bezawada – Vijayawada, Andhra pradesh.
Purani Sangamam – it could be either Sanganigundala in Amrabad mandal, or Sangameshwaram near Alampur mandal, Mahabub Nagar.
Sources for the history of Vishnukunds:
Inscriptions – 13 inscriptions issued during Vishnukund period. + 8 issued during later period.
Vishnukund period inscriptions
- Two Tummalagudem Copper plate inscriptions – @ Valigonda mandal, Nalgonda district. Telangana.
- Chaithanyapuri stone inscription – Rangareddy district. Telangana.
- Keesaragutta stone inscription – Keesaragutta.
- Saleswaram stone inscription – Amarabad Mandal, Mahabub Nagar district. Telangana.
- Velpuru stone inscription – Sattenapalli, Guntur district. Telangana.
- 2 Ipur Copper plate inscriptions –Tenali, Guntur district, Telangana.
- Ramatirtham copper plate inscription – Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh.
- Chikkulla copper plate inscription – Tuni, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.
- Tundi copper plate inscription – Tuni, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.
- Polamuru copper plate inscription – Ramachandrapuram, East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.
- Khanapur copper plate inscription – Satara district, Maharashtra.
Coins: Coins found at – Yeleshwaram, Bhuvanagiri, Sultanabad (in Kareemnagar) in Telagnana.
Bojjanna konda, Elamanchili (in Vishakhapatnam), Andhra Pradesh.
Nasik, Kanhapur, and Nagpur in Maharashtra.
Brahmagiri in Madhyapradesh.
Internal trade was carried on in the places where the coins were found.
Books: Janasraya Chando Vicchithi. Sethu Bandha.
Archaeological remains: Fort walls, Cities, and Cave temples.
Vishnukunds called themselves as ‘Amarapurishwaras’ or ‘Lords of Amarapuram’. They also said that with the blessing obtained from the feet of the Sriparvatha Swami, they extended their kingdom on both sides of the Sriparvatha. Samudra Guptha was reason for their aggressive expansion. Samudra Guptha who waged wars from North to South and won many kingdoms, gave back the kingdoms to the respected kings on the condition that they should promote Hinduism.
Vishnukunds favourism to Hinduism is evident from the Yagas they performed. They patronized Brahmins, donated Agraharas to them. Vishnukinds performed ‘Rajasuya’, ‘Ashwamedha’ and ‘Hiranya Garbha’ sacrifices.
Munuluru, present day Munnanore, in Amrabad mandal, Mahabubnagar district,
Mamidipuram is Amarapuram / Amrabad, Mahabub Nagar. The Umamaheshwara temple area, located nearby, became famous for mango groves, especillay for Thummeda Mango trees. Until two decades ago, there used to be a Mango tree at Uma Maheshwara Temple. The temple used to be under the mango tree. If the mangoes of this tree are broke open, bees used to come put. In this area, on the name of ‘Mamidi’ (Mango) these used to be some villages. Near Amrabad, there used to be a village called ‘Molaka Mamidi’. Mango in Sankrit is called as ‘Amram’ and bees as ‘Bhramaram’. In that way ‘Thummeda Mamidi’ became ‘Bhramaramram’. This word is also there in ‘Rasarathnakaram’ written by Nithyananda Siddha of 13th Century.
Bhramaramram / Bhramarambha is the wife of Mallikarjuna at Srisailam. The prime diety Shiva temple is Srisailam is Mallikharjuna / ‘Lord Shiva’. An old idol of Lord Shiva made of Arjuna tree trunk / Maddhi tree trunk is there in the northern side of inner temple / sanctum / Garbha griha at Srisailam. The main deity came to be called as Mallikarjuna, as the lord Shiva idol made of Arjuna tree trunk was worshipped by Mallika / Jasmine flowers. Mallika + Arjuna = Mallikarjuna.
There used to be a place named Mamidi vanam in present day Amrabad area. As the part of Sanskritisation, Mamidi vanam name was changed to Amrapuram / Amarapuram. Amarapuram is also the name of the prime God of early Vedic period, Lord Indra’s abode.
Due to the impact of Vedic religion, they named their later capitals were named as Sakrapuram and Indrapala Nagaram.
Vishnukund’s inscriptions mention that they have dug tanks and wells for the purpose of drinking water and irrigation. Many sources for the history of Vishnukundins appear in Amrabad and munnanur areas.
Vishukunds’ sacrificial altar and bath place were found near an old temple at Prathapagirikota, near Munnanur. A village named Brahmanapalli was donated to Brahmins by Vishnukunds. This Brahmanapalli is located towards the north of the fort Prathapagirikota. The Brahmins of this village got performed thousand of sacrifices by Vishnukunds.
Political history of Vishnukunds
- Indra Varma 358 A.D. – 370 A.D.
- Madhava Varma 370 A.D. – 398 A.D.
- Govinda Varma 398 A.D. – 440 A.D.
- Madhava Varma II 440 A.D. – 496 A.D.
- Deva Varma 495 A.D. – 496 A.D.
- Madhava Varma III 496 A.D. – 510 A.D.
- Vikramendra Varma 510 A.D. – 525 A.D.
- Indrabhattaraka Varma II 525 A.D. – 555 A.D.
- Vikramendra Varma II 555 A.D. – 569 A.D.
- Manchana Bhattarak (no clarity about his exact ruling period, ruled around 570 A.D.)