Ancient India Pre Historic Societies Lithic Periods
2.6 million years ago human life began in Africa.
Pleistocene age began 2.6 million years ago. (India 1.3 million years)
Earliest traces of human go back to 5, 00,000 B.C.
At Bhori, Pune, hundreds of stone tools of Pleistocene age were found. Skeleton found at Sivalik Hills (Part of Himalayas). Archaeologists named it as Ramapithicus.
In Narmada valley at Hathnura of Madhyapradesh a skeleton found. It is a Neanderthal man skeleton.
First Paleolithic discovery in Pallavaram, near Madras, by Robert Bruce foot.
No palaeolithic site found in Kerala, Ganga, Indus coastal plains. Remaining all coastal plains yielded Paleolithic sites.
Paleolithic means of livelihoodà Hunting and food gathering. Man hunted and woman gathered food.
Paleolithic sites are spreaded in particularly all parts of India except the alluvial plains of Ganga and Indus.
Mainly Hand axes, cleavers, choppers, blades, scrapers, and burins were used by them.
Tools were made up of Quartzite (a hard rock). Hence Paleolithic men are called as Quartzite men.
Paleolithic men roamed in small groups. The group of 10-30 people consisted mainly of blood relatives. As Small groups do not face food scarcity, they preferred to roam in small groups.
Paleolithic people domesticated dog for hunting purpose.
Early Paleolithic sites are:
Narmada Valley—(Madhyapradesh) – Number of sites found.
Belan valley- (Mirzapur district, Allahabad, Uttar pradesh)-
Hunsgi- Gulbarga district, Karnataka.
Attiram pakkam is a multi cultural site. (Paleo- Meso- Neo)
Bethamcherla- Karnool district, Andhra Pradesh. A cave found.
Nagarjuna konda, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh.
Tools- Chopping tools were used.
Used hand axes& cleavers mainly for chopping.
Such tools have been found in Soan and Sohan valley(pakishtan) and Belan valley, Mirzapur district, Uttar Pradesh.
In Tamilnadu hand axes were found.
Middle Paleolithic phase 100000-40,000B.C.
Important tools are flakes. Mainly flakes were used as tools. (Scrapers, borers and blade like tools.
Important sites are:
Suregaon, Belphandari, Maharastra.
Bhimbetka, Narmada valley, Near Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
In Bimbetka caves most ancient paints are found.
Upper Paleolithic age 40,000 – 10,000B.C.
Fire was invented.
Stone blades are used as tools. Blades and burins.
Mutchala chinthamani gani, Karnool District, Andhra Pradesh, is a “non-lithic site”. Bone tools were used by the people of this site.
Renigunta, Chthoor District, Andhra Pradesh.
Nagarjuna konda, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh.
Bhimbetka, Narmada valley, Near Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
People used Quartzite stone for hand-axe.
Domestication of animal.
Homo-sapiens first appeared in this phase.
Paleolithic men belonged to Negrito race.
Settlements were found in A.P., Karnataka, Maharaastra, Bhopal and Chota nagpur plateau.
MESOLITHIC AGE 9000 – 4000B.C.
Also called as middle stone age.
Mesoliths-à points, cresconic blades, scrapers etc.
Bagor is the biggest mesolithic site in India. V.N. Mishra is still excavating in Bagor.
Langhnaz (Gujarath) is being excavated by H.D Shankalia.
Sarai Nahar rai (Belan valley, Uttarpradesh) is being excavated by G.R.Sharma.
Chopani mando, Belan valley(on the tributary of Ganga), Uttar Pradesh, is being excavated by G.R.Sharma.
Last phase of this age- Beginnig of plant cultivation.
Birbanpur (West Bengal)
Belan Valley (Allahabad, uttar Pradesh). In Belan valley Paleo, Meso, Neolithic sites were found.
Bimbetka } Madhyapradesh.
Bherbarpur in Damodar valley, West Bengal.
Sanganakallu- Bellary, Karnataka.
Kachai buri- Mayurbhunj, Orissa.
Reniginta- Andhra Pradesh.
Nagarjuna konda- Andhra pradesh.
Bagore(Rajasthan), Adhamgarh (M.P.) earliest domestication of animals. 5000 B.C.
Making of pottery was first started in Mesolithic age. Chopanimando(Belan valley, Uttar pradesh) 1st used pottery in the world. 5000 B.C.
Artificial house building activity was started during Mesolithic age. At Sarai Nahar rai (Belan valley, Uttarpradesh) found earliest houses.
Micro-liths. Pigmy tools. 1 C.M. to 8 C.M.s
Blades, Cores, points, lunates. Bamboo also used as a weapon.
Microlithis Mesolithic age.
Flakesà Middle Paleolithic age.
Bladesà Upper Paleolithic age.
Hand axesà Lower Paleolithic age.
Carlyle found first Microliths in Narmada valley in 1867. They were made of Chert stone.
At Sarai Nahar rai (Belan valley, Uttarpradesh) evidence of an attack of the inhabitants were found.
NEOLITHIC AGE (7000 B.C. TO 1000 B.C.)
John Lubbock coined the term Neolithic in his book Pre-Historic times.
Neolithic people had advanced lithic technology and they had also started agriculture. They used very high technology hand axe.
What happened in History by Gordon Child.
Gordon child called it “Neolithic revolution”.
10,000 B.C. world wide agriculture was started.
In 7000 B.C. in Mehrgarh, Baluchisthan, Pakisthan, agriculture was started. Belan valley, India. 7000 B.C. agriculture was started.
By 10,000 B.C. in Egypt barley and wheat were grown.
By 5000 B.C. Mehrgarh people cultivated cotton for the 1st time in the world.
In the world, 1st potters` wheel was used in India.
Killi Gul Muhammad- Baluchisthan
Mundigak- Kandhahar, Afghanisthan.
Sari khole- Taxila, Rawalpini, Pakisthan.
Gumla- Indus river.
They led settled life. Neolithic economy was a self sufficient food producing economy. It was a period of food economy.
Mixed economy= Domestication of animals+ agriculture.
No metal was used.
Neolithic man was an “Uncivilized scientist”.
Neolithic period- Primitive communism.
So many grave goods were found in the tombs.
Rangpur- Chalcolithic and Indus site.
In India Neolithic age is not earlier than 6000B.C. and at some places it is as late as 1000B.C.(in south India and East India)
Used stones other than Quartzite for making tools. These tools were more lethal, more finished and more polished.
Cultivated land, grew fruits and corn (Ragi, horse gram(kulthi)
Domesticated cattle, sheep and goat.
Made fire, pottery. Painted caves.
They made pottery first by hand later by wheel. Painted and decorated pottery also found.
They used the metal gold.
Lived in caves. Decorated wall with hunting and dancing scenes.
Knew the art of making boats.
They also spun cotton, wool and weave cloth.
The dolmens of megalithic tombs are characteristic feature of the Neolithic age.
Gufkural, Bourzahom in Jammu and Kashmir are famous for pit dwellings, stone tools and grave yard in house.
Maski, Takkalakota and Brahmagiri in Karnataka.
Paiyampalli in Tamilnadu.
Piklihal and Guntur in A.P.
Gharo hills in Meghalaya.
Chirand in Bihar.
Amri, Kotdiji and Mehragarh.
Koldihwa—three fold cultured sequence of Neolithic, chalcolitic and Iron Age.
Chopani mando provides the earliest evidence of the use of pottery in the world.
Stone tools, Hand axes and other objects made of copper were used.
Different kinds of pottery. Most important is black and red ware.
Wheel made. Designs with white paint lines.
Channel spouted pots, dishes on stand and bowls on stand are found in M.P. and Maharaastra.
Not acquainted with burnt bricks.
Lived in thatched houses. Village economy.
Ahar and Gelund—-à Raajasthan.
Jorwe, Nevasa, Daimabad, Inamgaon, Navdatoli, Sangaon and Nasikà Mahaarastra.
Pandu rajar dhibi-à W. Bengal.
Kayatha, Eranà Madhya pradesh.
ANCIENT INDIA-PRE-HISTORIC SOCIETIES